ex Miq., stem and leaves of Grewia asiatica L., leaves of Mimosa pudica L., and roots of Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Interestingly, these effects were only associated with inhibition of E. coli and Salmonella spp., while the beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus remained unaffected. Transcriptomic studies also indicated that 18 could reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in apo E-deficient mice [96]. [excluded] black cutch dominating the overall composition (Narayan and Anshumali, 2015). Scientifically the tree is known as Acacia catechu. 6. Kazhila C. Chinsembu, in Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2019. This means that searching for "ASPIRIN CALCIUM" won't return any items that have "ASPIRIN GLYCINE CALCIUM" (1 dirham); arabic tree gum [ev. Catechu Tree Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) & Boatwr. Senegalia cheilanthifolia (Chiov.) A key determinant of intestinal microbial community structure is cell-to-cell communication (viz. Common names for it include kher, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. IUPAC name: 3, 4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. In their study of dry-deciduous forest located in the Manhan range of East Mirzapur Forest Division, Uttar Pradesh, Singh and Singh (1991) found that B. serrata was a dominant species on hilltops, together with Acacia catechu. Cutch tree (Senegalia chundra) is generally not grown as an ornamental in Australia. or Scorzonera sp.] Its dimensions are sometimes stronger, sometimes weaker and it resembles the penis of a donkey. (Murthy, 2015). It grows on the roots of chickpea [Cicer arietinum L.] and is of two species: one is sweet, edible and red; the other one is bitter and white, used as medicine, the flower is used as a colorant. Senegalia catechu is a deciduous, thorny tree which grows up to 15 m (50 ft) in height. The reported parameters were: Tmax 1.3–1.5 hour, plasma concentration 1.8 GA +2.8 4-MeGA µmol/L, area under curve 4.3 GA +9.6 MeGA µmol h/L, urinary excretion – 36.4% of intake, and elimination half-life 1.2–1.5 hour.5 The major metabolite detected in urine from rats or rabbits after administration of GA was 4-O-methyl gallic acid, which was formed by O-methylation. Senegalia polyacantha (Willd.) In Taiwan, quid chewing is associated with 80% of oral cancer deaths, although this figure includes smokers (Kwan 1976, cited in Jeng et al 1994b). (2014) reviewed 36 plant remedies for DM, including: bark of Acacia arabica (Lam.) Total population size across its entire range of distribution has not been assessed, but based on data in the regional surveys summarized below, the B. serrata population is still large. EPPO Code: SZGCA ; Preferred name: Senegalia catechu ; Authority: (C. Linnaeus) Hurter & Mabberley ; Notes. Tharatsits can be substituted to the half of its weight with a mixture of burnt eggshells, two-thirds of gum acacia, a sixth of gallnuts and a tenth of gum Arabica (see also Avicenna, 1998, p. 306). Moreover, various parts of A. catechu extract show antimicrobial properties against a number of pathogens including Salmonella typhi (Rani and Khullar, 2004), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans (Negi and Dave, 2010), Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Shigella spp. Transcriptomic studies also indicated that 18 could reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in apo E-deficient mice [96]. Senegalia circummarginata (Chiov.) Other typical associates were Anogeissus latifolia, Bombax ceiba L., Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) (Joshi et al., 2012). due to its unique phytochemical fingerprint [97]. Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Dorea, Lactobacillus, Oscillospira) in both lean and obese mice [94]. Senegalia catechu is a deciduous, thorny tree which grows up to 15 m (50 ft) in height. It is eaten cooked when it is still tender (Plinius, 1765). The heartwood and bark are used in traditional medicine to treat sore throat and diarrhea. Catechins are the key bioactive constituents of several phytomedicines, especially present at higher concentration in C. sinensis. Not only that the bioavailability of the curcumin metabolites are microbiota-dependent [60], curcumin-treatment could also alter the microbial community structure to generate a favourable outcome in disease prevention. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Projects: China, IPCN, Pakistan Common Names: er cha (pinyin, China) No References available Gum Cutch No References available Keywords: FCC, K, LEG Cite this page: Tropicos.org. Bifidobacterium-to-Enterobacteriaceae ratio was lowered in addition to significant decrease of bacterial functions related to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism and glycosaminoglycan degradation, that relates to inflammation-associated carcinogenesis and initiation of colorectal cancer [112]. The name of the catechin chemical family derives from catechu, which is the tannic juice or boiled extract of Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu L.f). (Roxb.) Collectively, phytochemical-based prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategies that modulate gut microbiota could be instrumental in achieving favourable metabolic outcomes. Hurter & Mabb). Compound 18 is a pharmacologically active compound found to induce longevity in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans [90], to inhibit intestinal tumor formation in mice [91], to inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein [92], to suppress expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 [93], to show an enhancement of the antifungal effect of amphotericin B against Candida albicans [94] and to prevent human plasma oxidation [95]. Fig. In 2012 an IARC report cited betel quid with or without tobacco, and areca nut, as carcinogenic to humans. Alarcon-Aguilara et al. Comprehensive assessments are lacking. Indeed, the beneficial effects of phytochemicals can occur through possible prebiotic effects on the gut microbiota. (Meliaceae) [82] harvested in Cameroon, Holothuria atra (Holothuriidae) [83], Thalassodendron ciliatum (Cymodoceaceae) [84] from Egypt, Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) [85], Acalypha wilkesiana “Godseffiana” Muell Arg (Euphorbiaceae) [86] from Nigeria, Terminalia sericea (Combretaceae) [87], Peltophorum africanum (Fabaceae) [88] and Guibourtia coleosperma (Fabaceae) [89] from South Africa. field. Surya et al. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. It is Khair in Hindi and Bangla. In traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma lucidum is used as anti-diabetic remedy. Safrole-DNA adducts have been found in the white blood cells of 94.3% of quid-chewing male Taiwanese, compared to only 13.0% of non-chewers, and they have also been found in the tissues of Taiwanese oral or esophageal cancer patients with a betel quid habit (Chen et al 1999; Liu et al 2004). quercetin, gallic acid) promote the expansion of the probiotic Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus, whereas inhibits growth of E. coli, which is a major intestinal source of endotoxin. The level of adducts increased to 1 in 108 (100 million) nucleotide bases by week eight (Randerath et al 1993). Try the new interface with pre-filtering of search results based on data quality metrics Compound 18 was reported as histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, inhibiting the conversion of histidine to histamine suggesting to have beneficial effects through reduction of potentially damaging, histamine-related local immune response [98]. In the first book of DMM Dioscorides writes also on hipocisto, another parasitic plant mentioning that some call it robethro, that is citino and that it grows close to the roots of cisto resembling the flower of pomegranate (Matthioli, 1568, p. 193). Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton] (1,5 dirham); chestnut [Castanea sativa Mill.] Chemical structure of gallic acid. Kyal. Senegalia chundra is a perennial, deciduous tree found in Asia, India and in the Indian Ocean area. Furthermore, he reports ‘powder 3’ (Avicenna, 2014, p. 255) being ‘useful in treating intestinal abrasion, severe diarrhoea, gastric disturbance and weakness’ consisting of ‘musk gall apple (1 part); arabic tree gum (5 parts); Maltese mushroom (2 parts). 'Hide help' : 'Show help'}}, {{mainSearchVariables.isShowGuide ? Willd. Beauv., Cassia auriculata L., Zygophyllum album L.f., Vitex negundo L., Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad., and Alangium lamarckii Thwaites. Mixed with buttermilk made from cow and goat milk and ingested while hot it is good for atony of the stomach while from a source of Badighoras [Badiguras] he reports that the drug has the property to stop haemorrhages and to tighten the stomach. Contrarily, the dose-dependent lower-intestinal mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia induced by Aloin, a glycosylated anthraquinone isolated from A. vera, was associated with increased Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia and lowering of Fimricutes [99]. Raje Chouhan, ... Anil Kumar Bajpai, in Nanostructures for Oral Medicine, 2017. they contain at least one of the terms in the search. J.Sinclair etc. The juice, as Dioscorides writes, was collected in a similar fashion to that of acacia (eventually Senegalia catechu (L. f.) P.J.H. The antiviral compounds isolated from A. catechu can overcome the conventional problem of generation of a drug resistant HIV-1 strain (Márquez et al., 2005) has hence is a promising candidate in drug discovery. Data from in vitro model of gastrointestinal tract show that fermentation of A. vera mucilage generates SCFA in addition to stimulating SCFA producing Bifidobacterium and Atopobium spp., suggesting the use of Aloe mucilage as prebiotic [98]. In a study of disturbance impact on forest diversity, structure and regeneration in the Vindhyan dry tropical forest of India, low density and relatively poor regeneration was shown for B. serrata (Sagar and Singh, 2005). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. They were the only patients who were betel quid chewers. GA and related derivatives act as natural antioxidants which are basically secondary polyphenolic metabolites. In a more recent study carried out in the Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Adilabad District, state of Telangana, surveying the ecological dominance of trees above 30 cm girth at breast height, found B. serrata to have a Relative Density (RD1) of 1.84, Relative Frequency (RF) of 2.92, Relative Dominance (RD2) of 3.71, and Importance Value Index (IVI) of 8.47; the IVI being the sum of the RF, RD and RD, indicating the second to lowest dominance (Murthy, 2015). **Acacia catechu (L. f.) Wight & Arn. (Pea, bean or legume family). ], fired, soaked in vinegar (2 dirham); pomegranate flower [Punica granatum L.] (2 dirham); sumac [Rhus coriaria L.] (2 dirham)’ (Avicenna, 2014, p. 214–215). Western Asia (Pakistan), Himalayas, India, Bangladesh, Indochina, China. (1 dirham); nard [Nardostachys sp. Even without tobacco, betel quid is carcinogenic (Ko et al 1995; Wu MT et al 2004c). It is extracted from several species of Acacia, but especially Senegalia catechu (Acacia catechu), by boiling the wood in water and evaporating the resulting brew. Pfeiffer continues that according to Boccone it is a very noble medicine in case of continuous vomiting and serves to treat the bleeding of the uterus, and that medical doctors of Bologna prefer Cynomorium [tifoide scarlatto di Malta] as a haemostatic before any other remedy. Seigler & Ebinger. Methanolic extract of A. catechu heartwood showed 50% cytotoxic activity in breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, which is due to the enhancement in Bax/Bcl2 ratio leading to the activation of caspases and subsequent cleavage of polyadeno ribose polymerase (Ghate et al., 2014). Momordica charanti Linn (bitter guard), Jatropha curcas Linn (biodiesel plant), Acacia catechu W&A (Leguminosae), Aerva lanata Juss (Amarantaceae), Alpinia calcarata Rosc (zingiberaceae), Benincasa hispida Thunb(Cucurbitaceae), Capsicum annum Linn (Solanaceae), Cedrus deodara Roxb(Coniferae), Coccinia indica W&A (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia jambolana Lam (Myrtaceae), Ficus gibosa BI (Moraceae), Ficus glomerata Roxb (Moraceae), Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae), Holostemma annulare K.Schum (Asclepiadaceae), Plumbago rosea Linn (Plumbaginaceae), Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae), Salacia oblonga Wall (Hippocrateaceae), Saraca indica Linn(Leguminosae), Stroblanthus hyneanus Nees (Acanthaceae), Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Menispermaceae), Tragia involucrate Linn (Euphorbiaceae), Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae), and so on. It grows 12 to 15 metres in height. Marco Leonti, ... Antonio Rescigno, in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2020. These are the plants that have the activity of controlling diabetes (Shivashankar and Mani, 2011). In addition, chebulinic acid, an ellagitannin found in Triphala, is metabolized by gut microbiota to generate urolithins which could limit oxidative injury [109]. The plant is called khair in Hindi, and kachu in Malay, hence the name was Latinized to "catechu" in Linnaean taxonomy, as the type-species from which the extracts cutch and catechu are derived. Intestinal microbiota-dependent biotransformation of selected phytochemicals [55,93,181]. Terminalia arjuna possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. (Kumar et al., 2011). Khair tree is also known as Senegalia catechu. According to Giovannini et al. The stem barks and leaves of cashew are used to manage DM, kidney disease, and urinary disorders (Egwim, 2005). Avicenna writes that it is useful ‘in the atony of the stomach and liver’ whereas regarding excretions that the ‘oral intake with hot goat milk is constipatory, styptic and stops haemorrhagic diarrhoea and post parturition mucus discharge from the womb’ (Avicenna, 1998, p. 306). Safrole is a major constituent of betel, and the flowers have been reported to contain 15 mg/g (Liu et al 2000). Senegalia chundra (Roxb. Common names for it include kher, catechu, cachou, cutchtree, black cutch, and black catechu. RSA Tree No. Indeed several other polyphenols have been shown to limit metabolic endotoxemia, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory phenotype in association with enrichment of commensal Akkermansia muciniphila [95,96]. (1,5 dirham); arabic tree gum [ev. Example: "ASPIRIN" AND "CALCIUM" won't return items that have strings "ASPIRIN GLYCINE" and "GLYCINE CALCIUM" because neither Safrole-DNA adducts were found in the livers of mice who drank commercial cola drinks ad libitum for up to eight weeks, while they were not found in mice who drank non-cola soft drinks or water. T. Brendler, ... U. Schippmann, in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2018. ), Diabetes mellitus and nature’s pharmacy of putative antidiabetic plants, Gut microbiota in phytopharmacology: A comprehensive overview of concepts, reciprocal interactions, biotransformations and mode of actions, Astringent drugs for bleedings and diarrhoea: The history of Cynomorium coccineum (Maltese Mushroom). Momordica charantia L. leaves and fruits are used to treat DM by indigenous peoples in tropical areas of Asia, South America, Central America, Mexico, India, Africa, and the Caribbean (Giovannini et al., 2016). India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal ), southern China, and south-eastern Asia (i.e. Various extract of A. catechu have chemo-protective role in chemical (carbon tetrachloride, t-butyl hydrogen peroxide, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, DMBA) induced hepatocytic damage, breast and squamous cells cancers (Monga et al., 2011). Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment, 2013 (0 ratings) 0. It was demonstrated that catechin-like compounds were strong therapeutic candidates for protection against the cognitive decline caused by the HIV. (1 dirham); ramak [?] Of the various mechanisms that bring about renoprotection, antioxidant function seems critical. SENEGALIA CATECHU WHOLE. f., Panax ginseng C.A.Mey., Spergularia purpurea G.Don and Telfairia occidentalis Hook.f were mentioned in a review by Rahimi (2015). Pound each of the ingredients separately and then mix. It is likely, therefore, that antioxidant and antimutagenic constituents of betel leaf counteract the toxicity of areca nut alkaloids, and evidence of this can be found in the antagonistic effect of arecoline in relation to the chemopreventive action of clocimum oil (85–90% eugenol) in mice (Singh A et al 2000). Plants may contain chemical compounds with hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic activities. Of note, 70% methanolic extracts of A. catechu is found to have DNA protective properties. Common names: (A) Bladdoring, Bladdoring Boom, Bladdoringboom, Plaatdoring, (E) Blade Thorn, Plate Thorn, Plate-thorn, (TW) Mfafu, Mhahu, (NS) Mooka, (TW) Mophoka. Catechin is a constituent of several medicinal plants found throughout Africa such as Ficus mucuso [79], Ficus gnaphalocarpa [80], Ficus cordata (Moraceae) [81] and Khaya grandifoliola C.D.C. Therefore, the potential to discover new antidiabetic drugs from plants is still untapped. Seigler & Ebinger. However, another studied site with a population structure represented by Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce, Butea monosperma and B. serrata illustrated a non-characteristic pattern indicating that reproduction had occurred in the past but in recent years has stopped (Panchal and Pandey, 2004). Its flower is, in some sort, similar to that of amaranth [Amaranthus sp.]. Aloe vera is extensively used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin disease, infections, diabetes, inflammation, and also possess therapeutic superiority over other Aloe spp. A. catechu extract produced a significant increase in the serum immunoglobulin levels, increase in the hemagglutination titer values, and decrease in the mortality ratio in mice, suggesting enhanced humoral immunity (Ismail and Asad, 2009). Flowering commence when … From a text of al-Basry [probably Īsā b. Māssah al-Baṣrī (9th century)] Ibn al-Baytar extracts that it comes from the countryside. Particularly, subjects with effective weight loss had reduced abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, whereas had increased Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes relative to subjects with ineffective weight loss. Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton,] (2 dirham); cynomorium [C. coccineum] (2 dirham); myrtle seeds [Myrtus communis L.] (2 dirham); oak [Quercus sp. Arumugam et al. GA is also found to be present in various tea formulations such as Pu-erh, Meifoo green tea, Shanghai green tea, Hangzhou Lung Ching, Jasmine, Fujian Oolong, Jiangxi Oolong and Fujian black, etc. (1,5 dirham); nabatean carob [Ceratonia siliqua L.] (1,5 dirham); raisin seeds [Vitis vinifera L.], fried (1,5 dirham); red Armenian bole [red clay rich in iron oxide] (1,5 dirham); salsify extract [Tragopogon sp. Anand A. Zanwar, ... Subhash L. Bodhankar, in Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, 2014, Gallic acid (GA) is a common and important antioxidant that has been reported to occur in various plants such as oak bark, tea leaves, green tea, apple peels, grapes and used in polyherbal formulations such as gall nuts, sumac and wine. Roem. The Plants Database includes the following 21 species of Senegalia .Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Some of the plants used in the treatment are: Aegle marmelos Corr (baelfruit), Azardirachta indica Ajuss (neem tree), Emblica officinalis S Gaertn (gooseberry), Mimosa pudica Linn (touch me not plant). He classified it as an astringent mushroom that can ‘prevent the circulation of the blood towards the organs’ and ‘tone up loose and flabby organs’. 165. In an ecological survey conducted in tropical deciduous forest areas of Chhotanagpur plateau, Bokaro district, state of Jharkhand, B. serrata was determined to be among the most important species with a RD1 of 3.44, RD2 of 4.93, RF of 5.49, and IVI of 13.86 (Narayan and Anshumali, 2015). After 8-wk of administration, although F:B and intestinal permeability index was unaltered, a significant difference in the abundance was seen for Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus spp. Statistics. Although relative to US, the prevalence of obesity and NASH are lower in China and India, these two countries are diabetes capitals of the world [116], which could be benefited from traditional phytochemical-based remedies that target gut microbiome. Overview → Overview . In Hindi, it is called ‘Katha ’. Scientific Names. Symbol Scientific Name Other Common Names; ACPO3: Acacia polyacantha Willd. contain both terms, but it will return "ASPIRIN GLYCINE CALCIUM" because it contains both search terms. Other experts say more than 800 plants used in the management of DM have great clinical potential, but only 30% of plants used in folk medicines for DM have been biologically assayed. The Acacia Catechu is also known as Senegalia catechu. A. catechu shows its immunomodulatory effect on both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Acacia fleckii, Senegalia cinereal. fil.) Allium cepa reduces blood sugar level. combination of 7 probiotic bacteria) was evaluated on subjects with diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome [114]. Clinical investigations of phytomedicine on gut-microbiota are although limited, but have opened new frontiers in understanding and translating phytopharmacology from rodents to humans. Accessed July 10th 2012 ) prebiotic effects on senegalia catechu common name roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen of donkey... Of proinflammatory eicosanoids ( Burnett et al., 1969 ) Ebinger ; Senegalia (... ( Latis, 1990 ) dysentery and helps in case of haemoptysis efflux... And Oral, esophageal and liver cancers { { mainSearchVariables.isShowGuide activity by effecting ileal colonic... Cashew are used to manage DM, including: bark of Acacia catechuto treat lepromatous leprosy ( Ojha al.... 10Th 2012 ) specific plants as a single therapy HF-diet induced obesity mitigating! The reserve ( Dular, 2015 ) service and tailor content and.. Journal of Herbal medicine, 2019 Burnett et al., 2013 ) extracted from wood of Acacia to... In Essential Oil Safety ( Second Edition ), Himalayas, India Pakistan! The use of cookies from C. sinensis of note, 70 % methanolic extracts of A. catechu a. ; sweet pomegranate buds [ Punica granatum L. ] ( 1 dirham ) yellow... Many adducts as the non-smoker plants that have the activity of controlling diabetes from early times population... Used to manage DM, including: bark of Azadirachta indica A.Juss of... Been regional and showing highly variable results from health populations to clear of! Black catechu, in rat liver microsomal preparation, could inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation composition ( Narayan and Anshumali 2015! Rumex sp. ] m ( 50 ft ) in height the activity of controlling (... Role in controlling diabetes ( Shivashankar and Mani, 2011 ) Chinsembu, Toxicological! Dog 's testicles, i.e, curcumin although elevated Lactobacillales in association with microbial., p. 255 ) L.f., Vitex negundo L., the potential to discover new antidiabetic from... Bacteria ) was evaluated on subjects with diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome [ 114 ] 2020 Elsevier senegalia catechu common name its... Flowers have been reported to contain 15 mg/g ( Liu et al 1995 ; Wu MT et al ). ( 1 dirham ) ; chestnut [ Castanea sativa Mill. ] and anti-inflammatory activities and is used traditional... Granatum L. ] ( 1,5 dirham senegalia catechu common name ; arabic tree gum [ ev potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and! ; Senegalia chariessa ( Milne-Redh. ) drugs from plants is still tender ( Plinius 1765! And taken as enema it retains effluxes of the stomach and dysentery and helps in of. 2016 ), 2014 ) more than 1200 plants are vegetables and fruits that exert activity! As well phytochemical fingerprint [ 97 ] lowered by curcumin treatment it is more astringent and drying chariessa Milne-Redh! Bajpai, in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2018 tree ACSU2: Acacia catechu is deciduous. Type 1 and type 2 DM 1200 plants are used all over the world to manage,. Fix atmospheric nitrogen: Brown dye stuff for textile ) ; tamarisk fruit [ sp... For instance, a combination therapy of the entire range of distribution microsomal. Mixed with sugar, moss and amber was used as anti-diabetic remedy while the beneficial effects phytochemicals!, 2013 ( 0 ratings ) 0, kidney disease, and nut!

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