These three visualizations show the share of children in employment for Italy, the UK and the United States at the turn of the 20th century. The World Bank – World Development Indicators also report figures of economically active children, but use a narrower age definition (7-14 years of age). The principal source for this programme is the ILO’s Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC), which is the statistical arm of the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). CENSUS DATA on Child Labour Census Data To view the State-wise Distribution of Working Children according to 1971,1981, 1991 and 2001 Census in the age group 5-14 years A similar pattern can also be seen in the data if we look at aggregates: In countries where children tend to work longer hours, it is more common that working children remain out of school. 2014: Extend social protection: combat child labour! The above relationship between work and schooling is informative about the impact of children’s work on schooling, but is not sufficient to establish causality; there are many potential economic and cultural factors that simultaneously influence both schooling and work decisions; and in any case, the direction of the relationships is not obvious—do children work because they are not attending school, or do they fail to attend school because they are working? Schultz and Strauss (2008)6 compile information from a number of different sources (mostly country-specific datasets from national statistics offices—see the original paper for detailed sources) to provide a picture of the industrial composition of economically active children. As noted above, children in child labour include those in worst forms of child labour and children in employment below the minimum age, excluding children in permissible light work—where “permissible light work” is defined as any non-hazardous work by children (ages 12 to 14) of less than 14 hours during the reference week (for more details see ILO-IPEC, Diallo, Y., et al. Our World In Data is a project of the Global Change Data Lab, a registered charity in England and Wales (Charity Number 1186433). 2017: In conflicts and disasters, protect children from child labour. In the majority of countries boys are more likely than girls to be engaged in economic activity. You have the permission to use, distribute, and reproduce in any medium, provided the source and authors are credited. those children who are economically active and do not attend school). A number of academic studies have tried to establish causality by attempting to find a factor (an ‘instrumental variable’) that only affects whether a child works without affecting how the family values other uses of the child’s time (e.g. The data produced by third parties and made available by Our World in Data is subject to the license terms from the original third-party authors. Similar findings have been found in other countries as well. While these studies can be criticized on the grounds of the validity of the instrumental variables used, they seem to agree on the fact that there is a stronger association between child labour and schooling than the raw data would suggest. To do this, the authors used mainly UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) from 2000 and 2001. The table (numbered as table 5 in Schultz and Strauss (2008)) presents their results. SIMPOC assists countries in the collection, documentation, processing and analysis of child labour relevant data. But in much of pre-industrial Britain, there simply was not very much work available for children. School subsidies for the poor: Evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program. This manual presents a wide range of sampling techniques for household-based child labour surveys with a particular emphasis on sampling design and selection procedures. Does the constitution place limits on child employment? This interactive chart shows this by plotting country-level average hours worked by children against share of working children who are out of school. World Bank Economic Review 20, 31–54. This visualization depicts the cross-country incidence of child labour (share of children ages 7-14 involved in economic activity) against GDP per capita (PPP adjusted GDP per capita in international dollars). The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) regularly conducts research and provides reports on trends in youth labor. It is unthinkable that a child would be subject to such mistreatment.. Child labour is far more prevalent in developing countries, where millions of children—some as young as seven—still toil in quarries, mines, factories, fields, and service enterprises. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. Some activities may help children acquire important livelihood skills and contribute to their survival and food security. In fact, even across countries with similar labor force participation of children, differences in average hours worked are large. Schultz (2004)11 evaluates one such program in Mexico (the so-called ‘Progresa’ program) and  finds a significant reduction in wage and market work associated with eligibility for Progresa. Basu, Kaushik. A Thing of the Past? Basu (1999)5 uses this source to produce global labour force participation rates for children (ages 10-14) in the period 1950-1995. For the US chart you can add data on rural versus urban child labour trends: for both boys and girls, the incidence of child labour was higher in rural populations. Child labor and school achievement in Latin America. Cases such as this illustrate why current academic studies typically rely on data stemming from a single survey instrument, such as UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Ananda Alert System. According to the definition provided above, whether or not a given job is considered ‘child labour’ depends on the details of the actual context — the child’s age, the number of hours worked and the type of tasks performed. ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). I. According to the conceptual classification used by the ILO, children in child labour include those in worst forms of child labour and children in employment below the minimum age, excluding children in permissible light work — where “permissible light work” is defined as any non-hazardous work by children (ages 12 to 14) of less than 14 hours during the reference week (for more details see ILO-IPEC, Diallo, Y., et al. In order to make this s… World Bank Economic Review 17, 283–295. The bar chart chart shows, country by country, the weekly average of hours worked by children (ages 7-14) who are economically active. Five years ago, the ILO estimated that there were 215 million child labourers worldwide. As can be appreciated in this visualization, the incidence of child labour in India seems to jump up in 2006, only to go back in 2010 to the levels that would have been predicted with the observations from 2000 and 2005. Humphries, J., Childhood and child labour in the British industrial revolution (Cambridge, 2010). The visualization here presents the incidence of child employment for boys vs. girls by country, according to the most recent estimates available from the data published by the World Bank. Schultz, T.W. Many studies rely on the LABORSTA/ILOSTAT data to shed light on the extent of child labour in the 20th century, before ILO started producing specialized child labour data. Children’s working hours and school enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua. The Survey on the Activities of Young People states that more than 120,000 children participated in economic activities in 2010. But there are a number of reasons why, conceptually, child labour might be indeed caused by poor living conditions. the authors plot the relationship by pooling observations across individual households). High levels of school absenteeism were also revealed because child had to help out … As it has already been mentioned, child labour is particularly problematic to the extent that it hinders the children’s development, notably by interfering with schooling. Although the authors do not provide details regarding their source, the estimates are likely coming from LABORSTA for a subset of 134 countries categorized by the authors as ‘developing’. While most countries exhibit a downward trend, many countries are lagging. misreported hours worked and sensitivity to the recall period used). How do the child labour figures above compare to current global estimates? However, this source is generally believed to understate the extent of child labour, since data is not collected for work inside the household (not even market work). A state-wide survey was conducted in the year 1997 under … The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time. … The Ananda Alert System is Jamaica's Child Recovery Strategy which was modeled off the Amber Alert System in the United States of America (USA). Total child labour in Andhra Pradesh is almost 92.78 times that of … Hence, to understand child labor it is crucial to understand time allocation. Essentially, it refers to situations of exploitation that a person cannot refuse or leave because of threats, violence, coercion, deception and/or abuse of power. ILO-IPEC, Diallo, Y., et al. According to a Campaign Against Child Labour (CAC) study, India has 1,26,66,377 child labourers of which UP has 19,27,997 child labourers. Over half of India’s total child labour population works here. Relatedly, it would be similarly helpful if the depurated cross-country series published in the World Bank – World Development Indicators were expanded to account for more flexible definitions of economic activity beyond “one hour of work in the reference week”. 2005: A load too heavy: Child labour in mining and quarrying, 2004: Behind closed doors: Child domestic labour, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), Timor-Leste National Child Labour Survey 2016 - Analytical Report, Child labour in herding in rural areas of Swaziland, Ukraine: National Child Labour Survey 2014-2015 - Analytical Report, Sampling for household-based surveys of child labour, ILO-IPEC interactive tools in sampling with household-based child labour surveys. 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